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The Free Encyclopedia of Universe

Wikione is a free knowledge base that can be read and edited by both humans and machines. it centralizes access to and management of structured data and strives to provide a comprehensive, open-source knowledge base of information . This means that similar content in different languages, mappings and links between sites, and other elements that are useful to multiple projects only need to be recorded and maintained once, rather than in each of the hundreds of projects.

Structured data also means that content can be organized and stored in a defined way, often in order to encode meaning and preserve relationships between different items. It allows machines to 'read', understand, and process information and, in doing so, opens up a lot of exciting ways for data to be used and re-used!

As of January 2022 the wikione is in a read-only static archive state. Maintaining the site as a wiki requires a community of volunteers to curate new material and provide general oversight. A community has never formed around the site so we're looking into other options. The site has over 7,500 articles mainly from the Encyclopedia of universe. This content is a reference for thousands of people that visit each month from search engines.


Wikione is the encyclopedia that anyone can edit, but there are special guidelines for editors who are paid or sponsored. Wikione is mainly covering below topics and we are intended to prevent biased articles and maintain the public's trust that content in Wikione is impartial and has been added in good faith.


Humanities Social science Natural & Formal science Applied science Notable personalities

CONTRIBUTION TO WIKIONE

The official guideline is that editors should be volunteers. That means Wikione discourages editing articles about individuals, companies, organizations, products/services, or political causes that pay you directly or indirectly. This includes in-house PR departments and marketing departments, other company employees, public relations firms and publicists, social-media consultants, and online reputation management consultants. However, Wikione recognizes the large volume of good-faith contributions by people who have some affiliation to the articles they work on.


First, please be aware that Wikione is an encyclopedia written by volunteers. Our mission is to share reliable knowledge to benefit people who want to learn. We are not social media, a place to promote a company or product or person, to advocate for or against anyone or anything, nor a place to first announce to the world information on topics that have not already been the subject of reliable publication. Please keep this in mind, always. We find "accepted knowledge" in high-quality, published sources. By "high-quality" we mean books by reputable publishers, respected newspapers, peer-reviewed scientific and academic journals, literature reviews and other sources with a reputation for fact-checking and accuracy. This means generally not using random personal websites, blogs, forum posts, Facebook, LinkedIn or Twitter content, self-published sources like open wikis (including other Wiki articles), etc. We summarize such high quality, published sources in Wikione articles. That is all we do! Please make sure that anything you write on Wikione is based on such sources – not on what is in your head.

Here are some tips that can help you with your first article:

•Register an account. All you need is to choose a username and password. This will give you various powers. After a few days of editing articles, it will give you the power to create a new one.

•Practice first. Before starting, try editing existing articles to get a feel for writing and for using Wikione's mark-up language—we recommend that you first take a tour through the tutorial or review contributing to Wikione to learn editing basics.

•Biographies of living people are among the most difficult articles to get right. Consider starting with something easier.

•Search Wikione to see if an article already exists on the subject, perhaps under a different title. If an article already exists, feel free to make any constructive edits to improve it, while citing the sources that verify your changes.

•No article on the subject exists? OK, now you need to try to determine if the subject you want to write about is what we call "notable" on Wikione. The question we ask is: does this topic belong in an encyclopedia?


Gathering references

Gather sources for the information you will be writing about. You will use references to establish notability and to cite particular facts. References used to support notability must meet additional criteria beyond reliability. References used for specific facts need not meet these additional criteria. To be worthy of inclusion in an encyclopedia, a subject must be sufficiently notable, and that notability must be verifiable through citations to reliable sources. As noted, the sources you use must be reliable; that is, they must be sources that exercise some form of editorial control and have some reputation for fact-checking and accuracy. Print sources (and web-based versions of those sources) tend to be the most reliable, though some web-only sources may also be reliable. Examples might include (but are not limited to) books published by major publishing houses, newspapers, magazines, peer-reviewed scholarly journals, websites of any of the above, and other websites that meet the same requirements as a reputable print-based source.

In general, sources with no editorial control are not reliable. These include (but are not limited to) books published by vanity presses, self-published 'zines', blogs, web forums, Usenet discussions, personal social media, fan sites, vanity websites that permit the creation of self-promotional articles, and other similar venues. If anyone at all can post information without anyone else checking that information, it is probably not reliable.

If there are reliable sources (such as newspapers, journals, or books) with extensive information published over an extended period about a subject, then that subject is notable. You must cite such sources as part of the process of creating (or expanding) the Wikione article as evidence of notability for evaluation by other editors. If you cannot find such reliable sources that provide extensive and comprehensive information about your proposed subject, then the subject is not notable or verifiable and almost certainly will be deleted. So your first job is to go find references to cite. There are many places to find reliable sources, including your local library, but if internet-based sources are to be used, start with books and news archive searches rather than a web search. Do not worry too much about formatting citations properly. It would be great if you did that, but the main thing is to get references into the article, even if they are not perfectly formatted.


Things to avoid

•Articles about yourself, your family or friends, your website, a band you're in, your teacher, a word you made up, or a story you wrote

•If you or someone or something you are personally involved with is worthy of inclusion in the encyclopedia, let someone else add that article. Putting your friends in an encyclopedia may seem like a nice surprise or an amusing joke, but those articles are likely to be removed. In this process, feelings may be hurt and you may be blocked from editing if you repeatedly make attempts to re-create the article. These things can be avoided by a little forethought on your part. The article may remain if you have enough humility to make it neutral and the subject really is notable, but even then it's best to submit a draft for approval and consensus of the community instead of just posting it, since unconscious biases may still exist that you are unaware of.

•Advertising Please do not try to promote your product or business. Please do not post external links to your commercial website. We do have articles about products such as Kleenex and Sharpies and about notable businesses such as McDonald's, but if you are writing about a product or business, be sure you write from a neutral point of view, that you have no conflict of interest, and that you are able to find references in reliable sources that are independent from the subject you are writing about. For a business or similar organization, make sure it meets the specific notability guidelines for businesses and read the FAQ for non-profits and for-profit businesses.

•Attacks on a person or organization Material that violates our biographies of living persons policy or is intended to threaten, defame, or harass its subject or another entity is not permitted. Unsourced negative information, especially in articles about living people, is quickly removed, and attack pages may be deleted immediately.

•Personal essays or original research Wikione surveys existing human knowledge; it is not a place to publish new work. Do not write articles that present your own original theories, opinions, or insights, even if you can support them by reference to accepted work. A common mistake is to present a novel synthesis of ideas in an article. Remember, just because both Fact A and Fact B are true does not mean that A caused B, or vice versa (fallacies or post hoc ergo propter hoc). If the synthesis or causation is true, locate and cite reliable sources that report the connection.

•Non-notable topics People frequently add pages to Wikione without considering whether the topic is really notable enough to go into an encyclopedia. Because Wikione does not have the space limitations of paper-based encyclopedias, our notability policies and guidelines allow a wide range of articles – however, they do not allow every topic to be included. A particularly common special case of this is pages about people, companies, or groups of people that do not substantiate the notability or importance of their subject with reliable sources, so we have decided that such pages may be speedily deleted under our speedy deletion policy. This can offend – so please consider whether your chosen topic is notable enough for Wikione, and then substantiate the notability or importance of your subject by citing those reliable sources in the process of creating your article. Wikione is not a directory of everything in existence.

•A single sentence or only a website link Articles need to have real content of their own.

Editing articles

Content style and policies

An encyclopedic style with a formal tone is important: straightforward, just-the-facts, instead of essay-like, argumentative, or opinionated. The goal of a Wikione article is to create a comprehensive and neutrally written summary of existing mainstream knowledge about a topic. Wikione does not publish original research. An encyclopedia is, by its nature, a tertiary source that provides a survey of information already published in the wider world. Ideally, all information should be cited and verifiable by reliable sources. Sourcing requirements are significantly stricter in articles on living persons.


Edit screen(s) Editing most Wiki pages is simple. Wikione uses classic editing with through (wiki markup). Wikitext editing using the Source Editor is chosen by clicking the Edit source tab at the top of a Wikione page (or on a section-edit link). This opens an editable copy of the page, showing all the wikitext used there, and the Source Editor toolbar offers simple menu options to add or change the formatting. Wikitext is used extensively throughout Wikione for such things as hyperlinks, tables and columns, footnotes, inline citation, special characters and so on. The Source Editor lets users toggle on 'wikitext highlighting' which uses different colours to help differentiate article text from wikitext. The Wikione community has developed style guidelines to make articles and facts appear in a standardized form, and Wikione easier to use as a whole. A basic list of wikitext can be found on the cheatsheet. An "edit toolbar" is provided just above the edit box (pictured below), which allows logged-in users (by selecting the option in personal preferences) to automatically place and format various aspects of wiki code. See Help:Wikitext for more information, remember that you can't break Wikione, and, although there are many protocols, perfection is not required, as Wikione is a work in progress.

WikiEditor-advanced menu-en.png

When you have finished editing, you should write a short edit summary in the small field below the edit box (pictured below). You may use shorthand to describe your changes, as described in the legend. To see how the page looks with your edits, press the "Show preview" button. To see the differences between the page with your edits and the previous version of the page, press the "Show changes" button. If you're satisfied with what you see, be bold and press the "Publish changes" button. Your changes will immediately be visible to all Wikione users.


Note: Do not sign the edit summary line with your ~~~~ signature, as it does not work there.


Minor edits

The "minor edit" checkbox (circled) in the wikitext editor

A check to the "minor edit" box signifies that only superficial differences exist between the version with your edit and the previous version: typo/grammar corrections, formatting and presentational changes, rearranging of text without modifying content, etc. A minor edit is a version that the editor believes requires no review and could never be the subject of a dispute. The "minor edit" option is one of several options available only to registered users. Editors should not feel that marking a change as minor devalues their effort to edit.


Major edits All editors are encouraged to be bold and strong, but there are several things that a user can do to ensure that major edits are performed smoothly. Before engaging in a major edit, a user should consider discussing proposed changes on the article discussion/talk page. During the edit, if doing so over an extended period, the in use tag can reduce the likelihood of an edit conflict. Once the edit has been completed, the inclusion of an edit summary will assist in documenting the changes. These steps will help all to ensure that major edits are well received by the Wikione community.

A major edit should be reviewed to confirm that it is consensual to all concerned editors. Therefore, any change that affects the meaning of an article is major (not minor), even if the edit is a single word.

There are no necessary terms to which you have to agree when doing major edits, but the preceding recommendations have become best practice. If you do it your own way, the likelihood of your edits being reedited may be higher.


When performing a large edit, it is suggested that you periodically, and before pressing "Publish changes", copy your edits into an external text editor (preferably one without formatting, such as Windows Notepad). This ensures that in the case of a browser crash, you will not lose your work. If you are adding substantial amounts of work, it is also a good idea to publish changes in stages.


Adding references

Generally, sources are added directly after the facts they support at the end of the sentence and after any punctuation. Wikione permits editors to use any citation system that allows the reader to understand where the information came from, and strongly encourages use of inline citations to do so. Common methods of placing inline citations include footnotes, shortened footnotes and parenthetical references.

Inline citations are most commonly placed by inserting a reference between [1] tags, directly in the text of an article. The reference is a footnote, appearing as an inline link (e.g. [1][2]) to a particular item in a collated, numbered list of footnotes, found wherever a reflist template or

  1. ...

tag is present, usually in a section titled "References" or "Notes". If you are creating a new page or adding references to a page that didn't previously have any, don't forget to add a references section with this display markup.

There are a number of tools available to help with citation placement and formatting, some of which are internal tools and scripts, while others are available from external sites. For an example of the former, Ref Toolbar is a JavaScript toolbar displayed above the edit box that provides the ability to automatically fill out various citation templates and insert them in the text already formatted inside [1] tags. For an example of the latter, the Wikione DOI and Google Books Citation Maker converts a digital object identifier (DOI) or Google Books address (URL) into a filled-out cite journal or cite book template ready to be pasted into an article.


Adding images, sounds, and videos

A file that is already hosted on Wikione or the Wikimedia Commons can be inserted with the basic code File:FILENAME|thumb|DESCRIPTION . (Image: can be substituted for File: with no change in effect; the choice between the two is purely a matter of editorial preference.) Using thumb generates a thumbnail of an image (the most common placement option), which is typically sized differently from the original image. The Wikimedia Commons' File Upload Wizard and Wikione's File Upload Wizard will guide you through the process of submitting media. There are various file formats available.

Article creation

Before starting a new article, please understand Wikione's notability requirements. In short, the topic of an article must have already been the subject of publication in reliable sources, such as books published by major publishing houses, newspapers, magazines, peer-reviewed scholarly journals and websites that meet the same requirements as reputable print-based sources. Information on Wikione must be verifiable; if no reliable third-party sources can be found on a topic, then it should not have a separate article. Wikione's concept of notability applies this basic standard to avoid indiscriminate inclusion of topics.

An Article Wizard is available to help you create articles — it is not required but will help you construct better articles. Note: The ability to create articles directly in mainspace is restricted to autoconfirmed users, though non-confirmed users and non-registered users can submit a proposed article through the Articles for Creation process, where it will be reviewed and considered for publication. Before creating an article, please search Wikione first to make sure that an article does not already exist on the subject, and please also review the article titling policy for guidance on what to name the article.


Talk pages

Every article on Wikione has a talk page, reached by clicking the "Talk" tab just above the title (for example, Talk:Alexander the Great). There, editors can discuss improvements to the content of an article. If you ever make a change that gets reverted by another editor, discuss the change on the talk page! The BOLD, revert, discuss cycle is a popular method of reaching consensus. It is very important that you conduct yourself with civility and assume good faith on the part of others. Edit warring (repeatedly overriding or reimplementing contributions) is highly discouraged.


Most other types of pages on Wikione also have associated talk pages, including the User page each editor is assigned once they sign up. When other editors need to contact you, they will usually do this by leaving a message on your talk page. When someone has left you a message that way, you will see a notice the next time you log in or view a page on Wikione.


Sign your contributions to a Talk page by using four tildes (~~~~), which produces your username and a time/date stamp.


Protected pages and source code

Some pages are protected from editing. These pages have a "View source" tab instead of an "Edit" tab. You can still edit these pages indirectly by submitting an edit request—an editor with the permission to edit the protected page will respond to it.

To submit an edit request, click on the protected page's "View source" tab and then the "Submit an edit request" link at the bottom right.

Policies and conventions

Policies, guidelines, and formatting norms are developed by the community to describe the best practices, to clarify principles, resolve conflicts, and otherwise further our goals. Make sure that you submit information which is relevant to Wikione's specific purpose, or your content might be deleted. You can always use the talk pages to ask questions or check to see if your idea will be accepted. Please make note of which license will cover your contributions.


Notes

Some pages are protected from editing and marked by a lock icon at top right. If you are not allowed to edit the page, it will have a "View source" instead of an "Edit" tab. You can still edit these pages indirectly by submitting an edit request: click "View source", then "Submit an edit request" at bottom right, and an editor that is authorized to edit the page will respond to your request.
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